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‘Revolutionary’ ear probe could transform treatment of hearing loss – Halifax

HALIFAX – It’s a device that can fit in the palm of your hand, but Dalhousie University researchers hope it will do big things to help doctors treating patients with hearing loss.

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Rob Adamson, an assistant professor in the School of Biomedical Engineering, and Jeremy Brown, an assistant professor in the School of Biomedical Engineering, along with Dr. Manohar Bance are the brains behind the world’s first ultrasound imaging ear probe.

Right now doctors either use a CT scanner, MRI machine or have to do surgery on patients with conductive hearing loss, which is when sound cannot travel into the inner ear, to help treat them. But the engineers say the options leave a lot to be desired.

“CT and MRI, [they] just don’t have the resolution to see the tiny structures that are inside the ear,” Adamson said.

“When they look into the ear canal, [doctors] just see the ear drum and nothing inside the ear,” Brown said. “It’s very hard to directly visualize what is actually going on behind the ear drum.”

So the pair set out to create an alternative: a device smaller than a clunky CT or MRI machine but with enough resolution to give doctors an in-depth look into the middle and inner ear.

Researchers say they had to start from scratch and create all the technology involved with the ear probe.

Julia Wong/Global News

Two years and millions of dollars later, the engineers have created a tool that could revolutionize how doctors see inside the ear, diagnose and treat patients with conductive hearing loss.

“We’ve been developing two new technologies: high frequency ultrasound and optical coherence technology, as means of visualizing things that are inside the ear,” Adamson said.

“It has a resolution about 10 times higher than conventional imaging modalities like MRI or CT scan. It uses high frequently ultrasound to generate these images,” said Brown.

And with a size just larger than a car key, researchers say the ear probe will be more convenient for doctors to use.

“What we’ve done is taken [the current technology] and shrunk it down by about a factor of 10. Ten times smaller than the standard ultrasound machines,” Adamson said.

“What that allows you to do is see things that are ten times smaller. That turns out to be exactly what you need to be able to see the structures inside the ear,” he said.

“We’re the first people in the world to actually successfully bring a probe with such resolution into such a small package,” Brown said.

Adamson said researchers plan to fine-tune the device then conduct clinical trials within a year. They hope to start selling the ear probe within five years. Funding for the project was provided through the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency and other grants.

Is the case against the man accused of bullying Amanda Todd in jeopardy?

The case against the man accused of bullying and blackmailing B.C. teenager Amanda Todd may be in jeopardy because of the way Dutch police tracked his online activity.

Todd took her own life at the age of 15, a week after posting a video on YouTube about how her interactions with a man online led to humiliation and depression.

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The suspect in the case, 36-year-old Aidyn Coban, is accused in seven other cases of pressuring victims to perform sexual acts on webcams and recording their images to extort them. But, police believe there could be dozens of other victims out there, including in Canada.

READ MORE: Will Canada ever get to prosecute Amanda Todd’s alleged predator?

Police in the Netherlands arrested Coban in January, but prior to that, broke into his home and installed a keystroke logger — software that records everything a user types — on his computer.

The information gathered could help prosecutors secure a conviction in the case, but only if it winds up being admissible.

Coban’s lawyer plans to argue the information gathered with the keylogger is inadmissible.

Christian van Dijk said it’s the first time a case involving keylogging software has gone before the Dutch courts and there are a lot of unanswered questions about how police use the software.

READ MORE: Suspect in Amanda Todd case could have been hacked: lawyer

“If Holland uses material that isn’t legal, then we have a problem,” Christian van Dijk told Global News in a phone interview on Thursday, following a pro forma hearing in Amsterdam that Coban did not attend.

Police in Canada, the U.S. and other jurisdictions use keystroke loggers. But they are controversial in the Netherlands.

Privacy regulations are strict in the country and the law surrounding search warrants was written prior to computer technology, according Mathijs Pennings, the Dutch journalist who broke the news in January that Coban’s arrest was connected to the Todd case.

READ MORE: Dutch could extradite suspect before trial

According to Pennings, police discovered data with Internet usernames of 250 people. Now they’re trying to find out real names and hope more people come forward.

Lawyers on both sides will have another three months to gather information and build their cases before they appear in court for another hearing.

Prosecutors in B.C. are desperate for Coban to be extradited to Canada, where such information is admissible.

With files from Jennifer Tryon and Stuart Greer

Should Ontario invest in tornado sirens?

TORONTO – When people think of Tornado Alley, they envision Oklahoma or Texas in the United States, with monster tornadoes bearing down on small towns and farms. They don’t envision southwestern Ontario. But they should.

Ontario – as well as the Prairies – has its own Tornado Alley, albeit a shadow of its larger cousin to the south.

READ MORE: A look at tornadoes in Canada

Since the 2014 storm season began – which typically runs from May to October – there have already been six tornadoes in Ontario (strangely, they all occurred – in pairs – on a Tuesday). The province typically sees about 17 tornadoes annually.

These 2014 tornadoes affected communities such as Angus, New Tecumseth and Amaranth.

Video of suspected tornado

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Video of suspected tornado

02:24

Are tornadoes becoming more common?

02:56

Picking up the pieces in Angus following devastating tornado




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Though tornado warnings were issued in almost all cases (severe thunderstorm warnings or tornado watches were issued in all other cases), many are asking how that information is disseminated to the public.

How watches and warnings are issued

Currently, Environment Canada issues a thunderstorm or tornado watch if it looks like there is a chance of severe weather. As storm systems develop, warnings are issued for areas where a severe thunderstorm or a tornado is occurring or where it appears to be imminent.

READ MORE: Is Canada experiencing more tornadoes?

Unlike the United States – in particular in areas of Tornado Alley – there are few places in Ontario that have a weather siren.

Instead, Environment Canada depends on two main ways to get that information to the public: a Weatheradio and the media.

Weatheradio is a network of radio transmitters that cover the U.S. and Canada. The device — which can come in a portable almost pocket-sized model — provides continuous weather information, but when a watch or warning is issued, it emits a loud warning sound and then follows with a voice statement pertaining to that particular advisory.

“I think Weatheradio is the current system that is our best method of [providing warnings],” said Geoff Coulson, weather preparedness meteorologist with Environment Canada.

Coulson added that more than 90 per cent of the population is within range of a transmitter.

High-tech society

Communities like Windsor, London and Sarnia lie right in the path of tornado alley, as warm moist air meets the cooler air and lake breezes of the Great Lakes. Of those communities only one – Sarnia – has a siren.

Emergency Management Ontario issues public alerts through various forms of social media, including 桑拿会所 and Facebook. It receives the warnings from Environment Canada.

The decision to install sirens falls to individual municipalities. But when those sirens go off – whether it’s for a severe thunderstorm or a tornado – varies across the country.

There are warning sirens at several universities in Ontario, including Western University in London and McMaster University in Hamilton. The Sarnia siren isn’t specific to weather, but is for disasters such as a toxic release or chemical spill.

John Carson, director of Campus Police at Western, told Global News that its siren system isn’t tied into Environment Canada or the city. Instead, the Environment Canada warnings are received by individual campus police officers who are on duty and can activate the siren.

Windsor, a city that frequently receives severe storms (it is the location of the deadliest tornado in the province’s history) has considered sirens, but as one of many options.

READ MORE: By the numbers – Ontario’s deadliest tornadoes

“It comes up from time to time, the idea of tornado sirens,” said Jason Moore, senior manager of communications and customer services for the City of Windsor. “We’ve never ruled it out specifically…but because of the maintenance and the cost of installation and the upkeep of these things, I don’t think it’s very practical anymore.”

Bruce Montone, Windsor’s Fire Chief, agrees.

“We’re in the year 2014 and there are so many technological ways to advise the public,” Montone said.

“Not to mention the significant cost to install the system and maintain it.”

Both men cite something called “reverse 911” as a better means of delivering the warning. This system involves residents registering with the city for specific alerts. For example, when a tornado watch is issued, a phone call with a voice message is made to the registered phone number.

The tornado siren at Western University.

Courtesy Western University

But that has its downsides as well, in particular the inability – at present – for cellular numbers to be included.

Montone said that there are more options such as companies that provide mass notifications. These warnings would go out to cell phones and 桑拿会所 and Facebook accounts.

This would be a far better way of communicating not only the particular warning, but also measures people can take.

“The sirens just say it’s coming. Well, okay, that’s good to know, but it’s really not the whole message,” Montone said.

“What we’ve come to realize in talking to some of the jurisdictions in the U.S. that [tornado sirens are] a challenge… it is more geared for people outside,” Coulson said. “They aren’t intended to hear the sirens in a building or inside a home.”

Greg Carbin, a meteorologist and spokesperson for the National Weather Service and Storm Prediction Center in the U.S. said the same.

“They are utilized to warn people who are outdoors,” Carbin said. “Although they are certainly loud enough to be heard indoors in some parts of the country, depending on your proximity.”

The United States is starting to roll out the Wireless Emergency Alert, a system by which phones will automatically issue warnings in the area. Neither an app nor registration would be required.

A portable tornado siren sits among the ruins of Joplin, Mo. staff after a deadly tornado struck in 2011.

AP Photo/Charlie Riedel, File

A way of disseminating information through applications is also on Environment Canada’s horizon. There are also plans to work with 桑拿会所, to tweet out warnings automatically.

READ MORE: How technology can help warn you about the next big storm

Another service that is available to media outlets and other organizations is the weather agency’s EC Alert Me, where the user can identify an area for which they’d like to receive email alerts when warnings or watches are issued.

Tornado sirens seem to be an antiquated means of informing the public.

“Nowadays we have such a mobile society and a high-tech society,” Montone said. “It just doesn’t make sense.”

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Quebec Liberals say Boisclair’s nomination gives taxpayers more bang for their buck – Montreal

QUEBEC CITY – He’s young, he’s smart and he knows his environmental files.

Former Parti Quebecois Environment Minister and party leader André Boisclair has been named special advisor to Liberal MNA for the Viau and current Environment Minister, David Heurtel.

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“It shows that our government wants to do politics differently,” said Heurtel, Quebec’s current Environment Minister. “We’re not going to be blinded by partisan blinders, we’re going to use the best people we have and put them in the right place to help out with government objectives.”

Most importantly though, the Liberals said Boisclair’s nomination gives Quebec taxpayers more bang for their buck, as they expect him to work harder for his pay.

Boisclair is currently chair of Quebec’s Environmental Review Committee (COMEX) three days a week, a job that pays him $175,000 a year. That’s nearly double the salary of his predecessor.

“As a civil servant, he was working three days a week at a fixed salary, so for the same salary we’re going to use those extra two days to work on notably the fight against climate change,” said Heurtel.

The Liberals said they’re fixing a problem inherited from the previous PQ government.

Boisclair was Quebec’s delegate-general in New York before being dragged into a conflict with former Coalition Avenir Quebec MNA Jacques Duchesneau, who alleged a possible connection between Boisclair’s past drug use and the granting of a government subsidy.

Boisclair resigned from his post as delegate-general last November to fight the allegations and was placed, by the PQ, at the head of the COMEX.

“He will work full time. Three days for COMEX and two days with the ministry, I don’t have any problem with that,” said PQ Environment Critic Sylvain Gaudreault.

Liberal MNA Serge Simard added it was about optimizing the civil service, to the benefit of all Quebecers.

“One thing is for sure, his work week has filled up and that’s a good thing for all Quebecers,” he said.

In his new role, Boisclair, also a former lobbyist for the shale gas industry, will assist the Environment Minister as he struggles to find new and more socially acceptable sources of revenue.

Boisclair did not comment his extra workload on Friday.

Halifax pop-up dinner scheduled aboard HMCS Preserver – Halifax

HALIFAX – It will likely be a meal they will never forget: a formal dinner for guests on the flight deck of the HMCS Preserver.

On Saturday, the Navy ship will play host to the meal, organized by Right Some Good and overseen by New York City chef Ed Cotton.

Cotton will be assisted by military chefs, who will be led by Petty Officer Second Class Stephen Arsenault.

This is the first time the Preserver has hosted this type of formal dinner, and Arsenault said it will be an exciting experience for all involved.

The Preserver will be where the military and civilians collide on Saturday night.

Julia Wong/Global News

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“It’s a very different venue for military chefs and civilians chefs to be combined,” he gushed while speaking with Global News on the ship’s flight deck.

“As far as the crowd coming here, more for them probably very different. This isn’t a venue they would have on a regular basis.”

The cook said he sees the meal as a pairing of the military and civilian sector.

All the preparation for the meal will take place at Stadacona, Arsenault said. Then the ingredients will be transferred, carefully, to the kitchen of the Preserver.

“[There will be] cooking and prepping within here,” the cook said. “We do the finishing touches here and the flight deck.”

“Everything is going to happen between both places. It’s very tricky that way because you’re moving up and down flights of stairs and ladders.”

Despite the challenges of preparing such a meal, Arsenault is thrilled to be part of the event.

“We have the conductor, which is the chef. He looks to us and we make that happen.”

“The end result is fantastic. What starts off as labour ends up as gorgeous when it’s all said and done.”

There will also be a free, pop-up food festival on Spring Garden Road on Sunday as part of Right Some Good.

Top 5 tips to protect your bike from theft – Edmonton

EDMONTON – Thieves are targeting high-end bikes around the city, prompting Edmonton police to issue a warning along with tips on how to keep your bike from being stolen.

“It can only take a matter of seconds for a seasoned thief to steal a bike,” said Cst. Terence Mak of the Edmonton Police Service.

“Unfortunately, many fail to protect their asset with a quality lock and/or proper storage and consequently become easy targets for thieves.”

WATCH: Edmonton police release surveillance video showing how quickly one bike was stolen in southwest Edmonton. 

Here are the top ways cyclists are being encouraged to take in order to protect their bikes:

1. Purchase a quality lock.

“For the cost of a solid U-shaped lock, cyclists can lower the odds of losing their expensive asset to an opportunistic criminal,” said Cst. Mak.

“Spending that extra cost for a decent bike lock and good quality lock it really would prevent thieves from stealing your asset, especially when they’re very expensive bicycles that we see on a day to day basis.”

2. Learn the best way to lock your bike.

Kendt Fredborg of United Cycle shows the proper way to secure your bike in the raw video below:

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3. Lock it up — no matter where it’s parked. 

“A lot of the reports we also see are from garage break-and-enters where they don’t secure the bikes. So they break into the bike…or the garage and that’s where they steal the bike,” said Cst. Mak.

4. Make sure your bike is insured.

“Quite a bit of them are insured up to $500. If you have an expensive bike, make that phone call,” suggested Kendt Fredborg of United Cycle.

Certain locks also carry insurance that would reimburse you up to a certain amount if your bike gets stolen.

5. Record the bike’s serial number upon purchase.

Police say this is a proactive step that could help them reunite an owner with their bike if it is located.

In 2013, 800 bikes were stolen in Edmonton, with most of the thefts happening in the southwest area and downtown. So far this year, 162 thefts have been reported.

For more tips from police, see below:

View this document on Scribd

European economy vulnerable to geo-political risks, says Oliver – National

OTTAWA – Finance Minister Joe Oliver says developments in Ukraine and Iraq are endangering the global financial and economic recovery, particularly in still fragile Europe.

The minister, who was nearing the conclusion of his trip to the United Kingdom, Germany and Poland, says he been alerted by Europeans about mounting risks.

He notes that the overall growth rate in Europe remains very low and the latest inflation reading was only 0.5 per cent.

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“So there is a very real risk of deflation and the banking system is more fragile than we would like to see,” Oliver said Friday.

“In this environment additional external shocks can be quite dangerous,” he added, citing the political tensions in the Ukraine and strife in Iraq that has led to a spike in oil prices.

Despite unprecedented low interest rates, governments and companies are not investing, he says, and lenders have again started taking on risk in the search for yield.

He says the gap in yields among countries and companies with very different credit ratings have narrowed, which “suggests that lenders are taking on more risk than they have before.”

Oliver says Europeans are well aware of the challenges confronting them and that they will be discussed at the next G20 meeting in the fall.

Relative to Europe, Canada’s banking system is doing well, as is the economy overall, he said.

On Thursday, Canada’s financial system supervisor, however, expressed similar concerns about Canadian banks going out on the limb with risky loans.

“While underwriting practices may be good today, past experience suggests that it could become very tempting in the current environment for mortgage lenders and insurers to ease up under the enchanting lull of the siren song of market share,” Mark Zelmer of the Office of Superintendent of Financial Institutions told a housing conference.

Most analysts blame lax lending standards, particularly in the U.S. housing market, for the financial collapse of several American investment banks in 2008 that triggered the global recession.

©2014The Canadian Press

Gino Odjick’s rare disease: What is AL amyloidosis?

WATCH ABOVE: Former Vancouver Canucks player Gino Odjick has posted an open letter to fans, saying he has a rare terminal disease and has just months, possibly weeks, to live.

He’s a Vancouver Canucks legend remembered as an enforcer for the team. But former hockey player Gino Odjick says he’s now in for the “biggest fight of his life.”

Two months ago, he was diagnosed with a rare terminal disease called AL amyloidosis. Doctors have told the 43-year-old he may have only weeks to live.

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“I’m telling you about this now because news is beginning to leak out and I wanted you to hear it from me,” Odjick wrote in a letter published Thursday night on the Canucks website.

“I also want you to know that my spirit is strong even if my body isn’t. I’m going to use all of my time to be with my kids and everyone I love.”

READ MORE: Former Canuck Gino Odjick diagnosed with terminal disease

Odjick said he first noticed something was wrong when he grew short of breath. He went to hospital, and within 48 hours, he was handed the tragic news.

What is AL amyloidosis?

It’s a rare blood disorder and its exact cause is often unknown, according to Dr. Diego Delgado, a cardiologist at the Peter Munk Cardiac Centre.

Substances called amyloid proteins – produced by cells in your bone marrow – build up in your organs and deposit in tissue or organs. The proteins are very sticky and take hold on your organs causing serious damage.

The disease can affect different organs in different patients, but it typically occurs in the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, or gastrointestinal tract.

“It’s causing abnormal protein to be produced and deposits are being formed on my heart. It’s hardening my heart and my doctors aren’t sure how long I have to live,” Odjick said.

“Initially they thought years, but now they think it could be a lot less. I could be down to months or even weeks,” he said.

Amyloidosis Foundation says AL amyloidosis is a rare disease with only 1,200 to 3,200 new cases reported each year in the United States. Delgado said it affects about five to 10 people per million per year. And typically, its victims are 45 to 70 years old.

The tricky part about this disease is that its symptoms are too generic.

“It’s very difficult to recognize because it usually affects multiple organs so there can be a long range of symptoms that are non-specific, like tiredness and weight loss,” Delgado told Global News.

Because the warning signs aren’t caught early on, most people head to specialists too late in the course of the disease.

“There’s not much to offer in some of these patients. But if it’s detected in the early stages, the prognosis is relatively good,” Delgado explained.

Shortness of breath, which tipped Odjick off that something was wrong, is a common symptom, the Mayo Clinic says. As the proteins build up in your heart, the organ’s ability to fill with blood in between heart beats weakens.

Less blood is pumped with each beat and your body has a hard time managing blood flow. If the amyloidosis plays with the electrical system of your heart, it affects your heart’s rhythm.

Delgado doesn’t treat Odjick or know specifics about his case, but in other scenarios, treatment can include chemotherapy or stem cell transplants.

“I presume that the disease is very advanced meaning the protein is probably deposited in many organs but most likely his heart is affected. If his heart function is abnormal, it’d make him high risk for any treatment,” Delgado said.

In the meantime, Odjick is in hospital under the care of doctors. He’s also surrounded by his kids, sisters, family and friends, he said.

“I feel very fortunate for my life. During my career, I played in some great NHL cities, including Vancouver, Long Island, Philadelphia and Montreal,” he said.

But he singles out Vancouver: “In my heart, I will always be a Canuck and I have always had a special relationship here with the fans. Your ‘Gino, Gino’ cheers were my favourite. I wish I could hear them again. You have been amazing,” he said.

Read more about how you can help here: Gino Odjick fans planning rallies in Vancouver

Read the full letter here.

– With files from Yuliya Talmazan

[email protected]桑拿按摩
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Timeline: Notable dates in Canada’s history – National

A look at some notable dates in the history of Canada, which marks its 147th birthday July 1.

June 24, 1497 – John Cabot claims a new continent in the name of King Henry VII of England after landing near Labrador.

June 30, 1508 – A detailed map of the New World published in Rome lists for the first time Terra Nova – Newfoundland.

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June 11, 1534 – French explorers under Jacques Cartier celebrate Canada’s first Roman Catholic mass, at their camp of Brest on Labrador’s coast.

June 29, 1534 – Cartier sights Prince Edward Island and calls it the “best tempered region one can possibly see.”

Aug. 13, 1535 – Cartier becomes the first European to sail into the St. Lawrence River, which he believes is a route to Asia. Two sons of Iroquois Chief Donnacona, who are guiding Cartier, refer to their native village as Canada, the explorer’s first exposure to the name.

1600 – Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit and Francois Grave du Pont build Canada’s first fortified trading post, at Tadoussac in what is now Quebec.

1606 – Jean de Beincourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt, builds North America’s first water-powered mill, on the Allains River in Acadia, after seeing six men die of exhaustion from grinding grain by hand.

READ MORE: What’s open and closed on Canada Day

July 3, 1608 – Samuel de Champlain founds the settlement of Quebec.

July 30, 1609 – Champlain helps Huron and Algonquins defeat a much larger force of Iroquois, exposing them to firearms for the first time.

June 24, 1611 – English explorer Henry Hudson and his crew are set adrift by other mutinous crew members in the massive bay that now bears Hudson’s name.

June 3, 1620 – The Recollet missionaries lay the cornerstone for Notre Dame des Agnes, the first stone church in Quebec.

June 25, 1625 – Father Nicholas Viel, missionary to the Hurons of Ontario, becomes Canada’s first martyr when he is deliberately drowned in the Ottawa River.

March 16, 1649 – More than 1,000 Iroquois overrun the Huron missions of New France, torturing to death the missionaries who established them.

Aug. 6, 1654 – Fur traders Pierre Esprit Radisson and Medart Chouart des Groseilliers begin their first westward journey.

July 21, 1660 – Canada’s first census puts the population at 3,418.

Feb. 24, 1663 – New France becomes a royal colony of the French crown.

July 7, 1667 – Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy concludes the first genuine French-Iroquois peace treaty in more than five decades of hostilities.

May 2, 1670 – King Charles II of England signs the charter incorporating the Hudson’s Bay trading company.

Aug. 7, 1679 – After being granted permission to explore western North America, Sieur de La Salle launches the Griffon, the first ship to navigate the Great Lakes.

Nov. 19, 1686 – France and England sign the Treaty of Neutrality providing for peace between respective possessions in America and settling the dispute over activities in Hudson Bay.

May 17, 1689 – King William’s War is declared between England and France, which pits New France against New England colonies and their Iroquois allies.

July 19, 1701 – The Iroquois cede territory to England north of Lake Ontario and west of Lake Michigan.

Aug. 4, 1701 – The Iroquois Five Nations sign a peace treaty with New France at Ville-Marie, Que.

April 11, 1713 – Under the Treaty of Utrecht, France recognizes British sovereignty over Hudson Bay, Acadia and Newfoundland. France retains possession of St. Pierre and Miquelon, Ile Royale (Cape Breton) and Ile Saint-Jean (P.E.I.).

Aug. 12, 1728 – Danish sailor Vitus Johassen Bering sails through the strait that now bears his name in an expedition that would prove that Asia and North America are some 60 kilometres apart.

June 8, 1731 – De la Verendrye leaves Montreal with an expedition to establish new trading areas in the west.

1739 – A census of Canada records a population of 42,701.

July 9, 1749 – Edward Cornwallis, governor of Nova Scotia, announces the establishment of Halifax.

April 17, 1750 – A fortified outpost is built on the present site of Toronto. Fort Rouille is intended to encourage Indians to trade furs with the French.

March 23, 1752 – Canada’s first newspaper, the Halifax Gazette, is printed by John Bushell.

1754 – Louis La Corne plants the first wheat in the west, in the Carrot River Valley of present-day Saskatchewan.

Sept. 5, 1755 – Lt.-Col. John Winslow says Acadians who refuse to pledge allegiance to the British Crown will forfeit their property and be relocated from their communities to Louisiana and British American colonies.

May 17, 1756 – The Seven Years’ War begins with Britain declaring war on France. It starts in North America and spreads to Europe.

Sept. 13, 1759 – British Commander-in-Chief James Wolfe dies on the field after being shot three times during the battle of the Plains of Abraham. French commander Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, mortally wounded, succumbs the next day.

Feb. 10, 1763 – The Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years’ War, with Britain taking possession of Canada.

June 22, 1774 – The British Parliament passes the Quebec Act, establishing among other things French civil law, British-based criminal law and religious freedom for Roman Catholics.

April 1, 1776 – The first of thousands of United Empire Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution arrive in Halifax.

March 29, 1778 – James Cook, George Vancouver and their crews become the first Europeans known to have landed at British Columbia.

April 24, 1779 – The North West Company is formed in Montreal to compete with the Hudson’s Bay Company in the fur trade.

June 10, 1791 – Britain’s Canada Act divides the new country into Upper Canada, with its capital at Newark (later Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont.), and Lower Canada, with Quebec City as its capital.

Oct. 13, 1812 – Gen. Isaac Brock is killed in a counterattack against American forces in the Battle of Queenston Heights, near Niagara Falls.

June 22, 1813 – A Queenston (Ont.) woman, Laura Secord, aided by Indians, treks more than 19 kilometres to warn British forces of plans she overheard of an American attack.

Dec. 24, 1814 – The Treaty of Ghent is signed, ending the War of 1812 and restoring Canada-U.S. borders.

March 21, 1821 – The Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company merge after decades of often-fierce rivalry.

1825 – The latest census puts the population of Lower Canada (Quebec) at 479,288, and Upper Canada (Ontario) at 157,923.

March 6, 1834 – York reverts to its original name, Toronto, and is incorporated as a city.

Feb. 4, 1839 – Lord Durham, former governor-in-chief of British North America, recommends in a report to the British Parliament the systematic anglicization of French Canadians to make them a minority.

Oct. 14, 1844 – John A. Macdonald is elected to represent Kingston, Ont., in the Legislative Assembly of Canada.

April 23, 1851 – Canada’s first official postage stamp, the three-penny beaver, is issued.

Dec. 31, 1857 – Queen Victoria names Ottawa as the new capital of Canada.

Sept. 7, 1864 – Maritime delegates at the Charlottetown Conference offer unanimous support for the idea of Confederation. The conference was supposed to focus on uniting the Maritime provinces, but an unofficial delegation from the province of Canada derailed the agenda and delegates agreed to the broad outline of a federal union that would eventually include Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in 1867.

July 1, 1867 – The Dominion of Canada, uniting Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, comes into existence, with John A. Macdonald as first prime minister.

May 15, 1870 – Manitoba becomes Canada’s fifth province.

April 2, 1871 – The first census of the Dominion of Canada lists the population as 3,689,257.

July 20, 1871 – British Columbia enters Confederation as the nation’s sixth province.

July 1, 1873 – Prince Edward Island enters Confederation.

Aug. 3, 1876 – The first telephone call between separate buildings is made by inventor Alexander Graham Bell, in Mount Pleasant, Ont., to his uncle, David Bell, in Brantford, Ont.

Feb. 8, 1879 – Sir Sandford Fleming presents a paper to the Royal Canadian Institute proposing that the world be divided into 24 time zones.

Nov. 7, 1885 – Rail director Donald Smith drives the ceremonial last spike home for the Canadian Pacific Railway, linking Montreal to Port Moody, B.C.

Nov. 16, 1885 – Metis leader Louis Riel is hanged for high treason as a result of the North West Rebellion.

Oct. 30, 1899 – More than 1,000 Canadian soldiers set sail from Quebec to South Africa and the Boer War.

Nov. 7, 1900 – Liberal Wilfrid Laurier becomes prime minister after defeating Charles Tupper’s Conservatives. Laurier goes on to be one of Canada’s most lauded prime ministers.

READ MORE: Take the quiz: How well do you know Canadiana?

Oct. 19, 1903 – Canadian representatives on the Alaska Boundary Commission refuse to sign the commission’s decision setting the boundary between Alaska and Canada, saying virtually all American positions had been accepted.

May 14, 1904 – Canada competes in the Olympics, in St. Louis, for the first time.

Canada’s Etienne Desmarteau poses with his gold medal won in the shot put event at the 1904 St. Louis Olympics.

The Canadian Press

July 20, 1905 – Acts proclaiming Alberta and Saskatchewan as Canada’s newest provinces receive royal assent.

Jan. 2, 1908 – The first coin is struck at the new Royal Mint building in Ottawa, ending years of importing Canadian currency from England.

Feb. 23, 1909 – John Alexander Douglas McCurdy makes the first airplane flight in the British Empire, travelling about 10 metres above the ground for almost a kilometre at Baddeck, N.S.

Dec. 4, 1909 – The University of Toronto defeats the Toronto Parkdale Canoe Club 26-6 in the first Grey Cup game for a Canadian football championship.

May 14. 1912 – Ottawa divests itself of responsibility for vast tracts of northern land, granting boundary extensions to Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.

Aug. 4. 1914 – Following Germany’s invasion of Belgium, Britain declares war on Germany. Canada, as part of the British Empire, is engaged in the war as well.

Feb. 4. 1916 – Fire partially destroys the Parliament buildings in Ottawa.

April 9, 1917 – The Canadian Corps attacks German positions on Vimy Ridge in France, a key piece of land held by the Germans since 1914. Six days later, fighting ends with the Canadians victorious despite the loss of 3,600 troops.

Dec. 6, 1917 – Mont Blanc, a French munitions ship, explodes in Halifax Harbour, killing more than 1,000 people and destroying some 6,000 homes.

May 24, 1918 – Canadian women win the right to vote in federal elections.

Nov. 11, 1918 – The First World War ends; Canada has lost 60,000 troops.

May 15, 1919 – A general strike begins in Winnipeg in support of striking workers in building and metal trades. It ends six weeks later, after two deaths in skirmishes.

Feb. 1, 1920 – The Royal North West Mounted Police and Dominion Police merge to form the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Oct. 24, 1921 – The Lunenburg fishing schooner Bluenose defeats the American vessel Elsie to win the international schooner championship.

Dec. 6, 1921 – Agnes Macphail becomes the first woman elected to Parliament.

Jan. 3, 1922 – The Royal Mint produces Canada’s first five-cent pieces, made mostly of nickel.

Oct. 25, 1923 – Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod are first Canadians to win a Nobel prize, for their work that led to discovery of insulin.

Nov. 19, 1926 – The Commonwealth adopts the Balfour Report, specifying that dominions such as Canada are autonomous from and equal to Britain.

March 2, 1927 – The British dominion of Newfoundland wins a 25-year boundary dispute with Canada. Labrador, which had been claimed by Quebec, is awarded to Newfoundland.

April 24, 1928 – The Supreme Court rules that women are not persons, and therefore are not eligible to sit in Senate. The government later amends the British North America Act to allow women to enter Senate.

Feb. 5, 1930 – Canada’s first woman senator, Cairine Wilson, is appointed.

Oct. 1, 1930 – After negotiations with Ottawa, Alberta gains control of its natural resources. Saskatchewan and Manitoba also receive the same power that same year.

July 6, 1931 – Federal officials and the Red Cross announce plans to aid victims of a drought that has gripped the Prairies for more than a year.

Dec. 11, 1931 – The Statute of Westminster, giving dominions of the Commonwealth full legal freedom, is passed by British Parliament. At Canada’s request, Britain retains power to amend the British North America Act.

May 24, 1932 – Legislation brings the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission into existence.

July 18, 1932 – Canada and the United States agree to develop the St. Lawrence River into a seaway capable of taking ships into the Great Lakes.

July 3, 1934 – Parliament passes the Bank of Canada Act, creating a central bank.

Sept. 10, 1939 – Canada declares war on Nazi Germany.

June 27, 1941 – The federal government allows women to enlist in the army.

Dec. 7, 1941 – Canada declares war on Japan after its attack on Pearl Harbor.

Feb. 26, 1942 – The Canadian government announces plans to move all Japanese on Canada’s West Coast inland to camps.

April 27, 1942 – Canadians voting in a plebiscite support conscription, but the vote badly divides the country: 70 per cent of Quebecers reject it.

May 11, 1942 – A German U-boat in the St. Lawrence River torpedoes two freighters, the first time the war has come to Canadian territory.

Aug. 19, 1942 – Canadian troops sustain major losses in a raid on the French port of Dieppe. Nearly 1,000 Canadians die and another 1,800 are taken prisoner.

READ MORE: Breaking German codes real reason for 1942 Dieppe raid: historian

Members of the Royal Canadian Medical Corps evacuating Allied soldiers from the beach after the Dieppe, France raid during the Second World War.

The Associated Press

June 6, 1944 – Allied troops storm the beaches at Normandy – Canadians take Juno Beach – in the largest amphibious operation in history.

June 15, 1944 – T.C. (Tommy) Douglas leads the CCF to power in Saskatchewan, becoming Canada’s first socialist premier.

May 7, 1945 – Victory comes for the Allies in Europe as the Germans surrender. News of V-E Day touches off wild celebrations in Canada.

Aug. 15, 1945 – The Japanese emperor announces Japan’s surrender, ending the Second World War.

May 14, 1946 – The Canadian Citizenship Act is passed, meaning a Canadian citizen is no longer classified as British subject first.

Oct. 14, 1946 – The government introduces Canada Savings Bonds.

Feb. 13, 1947 – Drilling begins at Leduc No. 1, a huge oil find in north-central Alberta.

March 31, 1949 – Newfoundland officially enters Confederation.

Dec. 18, 1950 – The 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry, begins disembarking in Pusan as Canada enters the war between North and South Korea.

May 7, 1951 – Parliament passes a motion seeking a constitutional amendment that would create pensions for all Canadians over 70.

Sept. 6, 1952 – Canada’s first television station, CBFT Montreal, begins broadcasting.

June 6, 1956 – A pipeline bill authorizing the creation of a western section of pipeline to transport natural gas to Ontario from Alberta passes second reading in the Senate. The bill has caused an uproar after the Liberal government invoked closure – a time limit on debate – for the first time in history.

June 26, 1959 – Queen Elizabeth, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower officially open the St. Lawrence Seaway.

Aug. 10, 1960 – The Bill of Rights, specifying the rights of Canadians, becomes law.

Jan. 19, 1962 – The government announces a new immigration policy intended to remove any racial discrimination from the system.

July 1, 1962 – Saskatchewan’s Medical Care Insurance Act takes effect, creating Canada’s first comprehensive public health-care program.

March 26, 1964 – Defence Minister Paul Hellyer releases a report that recommends merging Canada’s army, navy and air force into a single force.

Dec. 15, 1964 – A new Canadian flag – red maple leaf on white background between two red bars- wins the approval of Parliament.

– A new Canadian flag – red maple leaf on white background between two red bars- wins the approval of Parliament.

The Canadian Press

April 28, 1967 – Expo 67, a world’s fair built on the theme Man and His World, opens in Montreal.

July 1, 1967 – Canada celebrates its centennial with parties and building projects across the country. The government institutes the Order of Canada to recognize exemplary achievement by Canadians.

Oct. 17, 1968 – Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau introduces the Official Languages Act, making English and French the country’s two official languages.

Oct. 5, 1970 – The October Crisis begins as the Front de Liberation du Quebec kidnaps British diplomat James Cross and, later, Labour Minister Pierre Laporte. Trudeau invokes the War Measures Act, which allows government to temporarily suspend civil liberties. Cross is released 60 days later but Laporte is found dead.

Sept. 28, 1972 – Team Canada, on Paul Henderson’s goal with 34 seconds remaining in final game, defeats the Soviet Union four games to three, with one tied.

June 22, 1976 – The House of Commons approves, by just eight votes, a bill abolishing the death penalty.

July 17, 1976 – Montreal hosts the Summer Olympics.

Nov. 15, 1976 – Rene Levesque’s separatist Parti Quebecois wins a stunning election victory in Quebec.

July 14, 1978 – The federal government agrees to pay $45 million to 2,500 Inuit of the Western Arctic in return for Inuit surrendering aboriginal rights to 270,000 square kilometres of land they traditionally used.

May 27, 1980 – By a 60-40 margin, Quebecers vote against sovereignty association in a referendum.

Sept. 1, 1980 – Terry Fox’s Marathon of Hope, his one-legged run across Canada to raise money for cancer research, ends abruptly near Thunder Bay, Ont., when his cancer returns.

Nov. 5, 1981 – Ottawa and all provinces but Quebec reach agreement to patriate the Constitution.

April 17, 1982 – With the stroke of a pen by the Queen in Ottawa, Canada has its own Constitution.

Oct. 26, 1982 – Legislation changes the name of the annual Dominion Day holiday to Canada Day.

March 4, 1986 – The federal government announces it will outlaw mandatory retirement for civil servants and discrimination against homosexuals.

May 2, 1986 – Expo 86, a world’s fair on the theme of transport, opens in Vancouver.

June 30, 1987 – The $1 coin, which quickly earns the nickname “loonie,” is introduced.

Jan. 2, 1988 – The Canada-U.S. free trade agreement is signed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and President Ronald Reagan.

Jan. 28, 1988 – The Supreme Court overturns the law that required a panel at an accredited hospital to determine if a woman’s life or health was endangered before allowing her to have an abortion. The decision paves way for abortion on demand.

Feb. 13, 1988 – The Winter Olympics open in Calgary.

Jan. 14, 1990 – The Via passenger train The Canadian makes its final crosscountry trip after the federal government orders the railway to cut service.

Jan. 1, 1991 – After months of protest, the GST takes effect. The federal tax adds seven per cent to the cost of many goods and services.

Jan. 19, 1991 – Canadian CF-18 jet fighters fly an offensive mission in the Persian Gulf war, marking the first time Canadian forces have engaged in battle since the Korean War.

July 2, 1992 – With cod stocks dwindling, Fisheries Minister John Crosbie announces a two-year shutdown for Newfoundland’s northern cod fishery.

Jan. 1, 1994 – The North American Free Trade Agreement between the U.S., Canada and Mexico takes effect.

Oct. 30, 1995 – Quebecers narrowly reject separation, with 50.6 per cent voting “no.”

Feb. 19, 1996 – Canada’s new $2 coin, dubbed the “toonie,” is introduced.

May 1, 1996 – The Commons approves changes to the Canadian Human Rights Act to prohibit discrimination against gays.

May 31, 1997 – The Confederation Bridge opens, linking Prince Edward Island to the mainland.

Aug. 4, 1998 – A treaty gives the Nisga’a First Nation ownership of 2,000 square kilometres in northern British Columbia. Some critics complain the deal paves the way for aboriginal self-government.

April 1, 1999 – Canada’s newest territory, Nunavut, is carved out of the eastern Northwest Territories.

Jan. 12, 2000 – Beverly McLachlin becomes the first female chief justice of the Supreme Court of Canada.

Oct. 7, 2001: Prime Minister Jean Chretien announces Canada’s participation in an international anti-terrorism mission in Afghanistan

April 18, 2002 – Four soldiers, part of Canada’s contribution to the war on terrorism after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the United States, are killed when a U.S. fighter jet mistakenly bombs them in Afghanistan. They are the first soldiers killed in a combat zone since the Korean War.

Dec. 16, 2002 – Canada signs Kyoto Accord, committing it to lower greenhouse gas emissions.

July 20, 2005 – Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Canada.

Mar. 13, 2007 – Census data collected the year before puts Canada’s population at 31,612,897.

Jun. 11, 2008 – Prime Minister Stephen Harper issues a formal apology for the abuse suffered by aboriginals in the residential school system.

Dec. 5, 2008 – Canada marks the 100th military death as a result of its ongoing mission in Afghanistan.

Feb. 12, 2010 – The Winter Olympic Games begin in Vancouver. Freestyle moguls skier Alexandre Bilodeau becomes the first-ever athlete to claim a gold medal on Canadian soil. Canada goes on to win 14 gold medals – an all-time high for a host country in a Winter Olympics.

March 12, 2014: The Canadian flag is lowered at the NATO headquarters in Kabul, marking the formal end to Canada’s operations in Afghanistan.

SOURCES: Canadian Press archives, Chronicle of Canada (1990, Chronicle Publications), Canadian Facts & Dates, Jay Myers (1986, Fitzhenry & Whiteside)

©2014The Canadian Press

Wild chase in Saskatoon leaves trail of destruction

Watch above: man with lengthy criminal record arrested after wild chase in Saskatoon

SASKATOON – A man with a lengthy prison record who had recently been released from prison is facing numerous charges after a wild chase in Saskatoon late Wednesday afternoon.

Timothy Gunn, 25, appeared in Saskatoon provincial court Thursday after the chase left a path of destruction across Saskatoon.

It began around 4:40 p.m. when police received a report of a black truck driving erratically.

“Saskatoon police had received calls of a black half-ton chasing another grey half-ton and the driver of the black half-ton was wearing a hoodie, had a bandana around his face,’ said police chief Clive Weighill.

By the time the pursuit ended, four patrol cars had been damaged along with multiple private vehicles. One person was sent to hospital with minor injuries.

Map of a wild police chase through Saskatoon on June 25, 2014.

Global News

Gunn is also alleged to have attempted to steal two taxis.

At least two shots were fired at the truck that had been stolen from Rosthern after Gunn allegedly drove straight at a police officer.

Gunn is facing a string of charges including possession of a stolen vehicle, dangerous operation of a motor vehicle and assault with a weapon for ramming police cruisers. He will remain in custody until his next appearance on July 2.

He was wanted in Lloydminster, Alta. for an armed robbery in a hotel parking on June 11.

Timothy Gunn is facing numerous charges after a wild chase in Saskatoon on June 25, 2014.

Supplied / RCMP

Mounties said the robbery was not a random event and has ties to the drug trade in the border city.

One other person wanted in the robbery remains at large.

Police are looking for Sara Elizabeth Manners, who is known to frequent the Lloydminster, Edmonton and Saskatoon areas.

She is considered armed and dangerous and should not be approached.

Police are on the hunt for Sara Elizabeth Manners, who is wanted for an armed robbery in Lloydminster, Alta. on June 11, 2014.

Supplied / Global News

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